Winters in North Dakota can be brutal. During December 2000, the average low temperature in Grand Forks, N.D., was -10 F (-23 C). That month, the city's temperature was below zero on 28 days (the coldest high temperature was -7 F [-22 C], and the coldest low was -24 F [-31 C]). And 19 inches (475 mm) of snow fell.
Construction crews spent a long time defrosting after working in these below-zero temperatures when building the Ralph Engelstad Arena, Grand Forks. The arena is home to the University of North Dakota's (UND's) Fighting Sioux hockey team and also hosts concerts and other events. Roofing work began on the $100 million arena in December 2000 and was completed by the Fighting Sioux's opening day, Oct. 5, 2001.
Photo courtesy of MC Roofing & Sheet Metal Inc., Grand Forks, N.D.