According to NRCA's 2007-08 Steep-slope Roofing Materials Guide, 129 asphalt shingle products from nine manufacturers are in the U.S. market. In addition to a particular product's style, color and warranty term, various standards may apply to asphalt shingles that can be used to differentiate between products.
Two product standards apply to fiberglass-reinforced asphalt shingles: ASTM D3018, "Standard Specification for Class A Asphalt Shingles Surfaced With Mineral Granules," and ASTM D3462, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Shingles Made from Glass Felt and Surfaced With Mineral Granules." I consider ASTM D3462 generally to be more stringent than ASTM D3018.
ASTM D225, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Shingles (Organic Felt) Surfaced With Mineral Granules," applies to organic-mat reinforced asphalt shingles.